Pipe Fittings & Piping Systems Connections - Complete Guide


We carry all pipe fittings that are essential to changing direction of flow, adapting or reducing sizes in piping systems.

Changing flow direction: elbows, tees or crosses.  
Change the size of the pipe : use of reducers required (reducing tees, reducers).
To connect different components: couplings
To stop flow: caps

A pipe nipple is a short stub of pipe which has a male pipe thread at one or both ends. It used for connecting two other fittings. Nipples are used for connecting pipe, hoses, and valves. Pipe nipples are used in low-pressure piping.

There are different kinds of pipe fittings used in piping systems. The main and most commonly sought are: elbows, tees, reducers, unions, couplings, crosses, caps, swage nipples, plugs, bushings, adapters, outlets, valves & flanges.

These pipe fittings can be found in various pressure classes ranging from 150 PSI to 3000 LB. We also carry 2000# up to 6000# forged carbon steel fittings. We also carry MSS SP-114 fittings.


Let us know on your order notes if you need a MTR or certification for your order.


When it comes to the connections - BFO lists various types to accommodate all types of end connection requirements.

We carry the largest types and size fittings with the following connections:

  • Butt Weld
  • Compression
  • Grooved end (mechanical fittings)
  • Flanged
  • Flared
  • Threaded Fittings - we carry various types of threaded fittings that meet ASME & ANSI requirements:
    • NPT, NPS & NPTF
  • Push On / Push-to -Connect
  • Socket Weld
  • Solder Joint

Threading Information

Abbreviation System Name
BSPP British Standard Pipe Parellel
BSPT British Standard Pipe Taper
CHT American Standard Fire Hose Thread (1" National Hose Thread is Chemical Hose Thread, also known as Booster Hose Thread)
GHT Garden Hose Thread (FGH - Female Garden Hose) (MGH - Male Garden Hose)
IPS Iron Pipe Straight Thread
IPT Iron Pipe Thread
JIC Joint Industrial Commitee
NHT or NST American Standard Fire Hose Coupling Thread (National Hose Thread also known as National Standard Thread)
NPT American Standard Taper Pipe Thread (National Pipe Tapered)
NPTF American Standard Taper Pipe Fuel Dryseal Thread (National Pipe Tapered)(Drysealed)
NPSH American Standard Straight Pipe for Hose Couplings (National Pipe Straight Hose)
NPSM American Standard Straight Mechanical Joints (National Pipe Straight Mechanical)

Association Abbreviations

SAE International (SAE) is a professional organization for mobility engineering professionals in aerospace, automotive and commercial vehicle industries. The Society is a standards development organization for engineering of powered vehicles of all kinds including cars, trucks, boats, aircrafts & others.

AGA - American Gas Association
JIC- Joint Industrial Committee
ASA - American Statistical Association
ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Learn More About Certifications & Standards Used

POPULAR PIPE FITTINGS - (threaded featured below)


Pipe bushings are used to join pipes of different sizes - usually by reducing a larger pipe fitting down to a smaller pipe. Bushings are usually threaded inside and outside. They take up very little space compared to a coupling or union, which serve to achieve the same goal of reducing down sizes. Has a hexagonal head for increased leverage and use with a wrench.

Pipe Elbows

Threaded or socket weld pipe elbows are commonly used if you need to change the direction of flow. Most popular: 90 & 45 degree angles elbows. Elbows are a critical fitting used in plumbing. Street elbows feature male and female threaded ends to easily connect differing pipes or fittings. Side outlet elbows featuring a bend serve similar to a tee. 22-1/2 degree elbows are also available.

Pipe Caps

Caps are availabe in stainless steel 304 or 316 cast pipe fitting with female National Pipe Taper (NPT) threads. For closing the end of a male pipe. The cap fits over the end of a male pipe to stop flow. They are availble also with hex and square heads for increased leverage and use with a wrench during installation and disassembly.


Cross pipe fittings are 4-way fittings that are essentially just the combination of two tees. Many will opt to use two tees instead.

Pipe Flanges

Flanges are used to connect pipes. The pipe is threaded or welded to the flanges which are then sealed together with bolts. Flanged connections are used extensively in industrial applications handling high pressures.

Reducing Couplings/Bell Reducers

Pipe couplings are used to lengthen the run of a pipe or change pipe sizes.

When reducing this becomes known as a bell reducer. Available with female threads or socket weld.

Pipe Nipples

A pipe nipple is a short stub of pipe which has a male pipe thread at one or both ends. It used for connecting two other fittings. Nipples are used for connecting pipe, hoses, and valves. Pipe nipples are used in low-pressure pipe systems.


Pipe Tees are T-shaped with two outlets - at 90° to the connection to the main line. It is a short piece of pipe with a lateral outlet. Pipe tees are used to connect pipelines with a pipe at a right angle with the line. Tees are sized according to their run*. When the run of a tee is smaller than the side outlet*, it becomes a "bull head" fitting.

Run* - the horizontal or straight-through dimension of the fitting and the side outlet
Side outlet* - the "top" of the fitting, 90 degrees off the run


Unions are an alternative to couplings. Unions rely upon their own nut to create a seal between the pipe ends. This makes them the perfect choice for connecting two fixed pipes that are unable to be threaded into a regular coupling. Unions also make future repairs that much easier.


Valves are designed to control flow pressures and rates.


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